Generally, the practice of law is regulated by a government. Laws can be made by the executive or by a legislature. In many countries, regulation is implemented by a specialized body that oversees the practice of law.
Law has been described as an art of justice. It forms the basis of political and economic institutions and shapes history. Law is made by governmental and social institutions and is enforceable through courts and other legal mechanisms. Law is divided into three categories: civil, regulatory and administrative. There are also two types of legal systems: common law and civil law. In both legal systems, argumentative theories are present. However, the methods of legal reasoning and interpreting the law differ.
Civil law legal systems are usually short and less detailed. These legal systems explicitly recognize the judicial decisions of courts as law. The Court of Justice of the United Nations is the main dispute settlement body of the Organization. The Court has issued numerous judgments and advisory opinions. The International Law Commission promotes the progressive development of international law. It is composed of 34 members, each representing one of the principal legal systems of the world. The Commission prepares drafts on aspects of international law and consults with UN specialized agencies. It promotes the codification of international law and encourages the progressive development of international law.
Regulation is another type of law that is primarily concerned with providing public services. For example, federal regulation is required for hospitals to disclose their negotiated reimbursement rates with third party payers. Environmental law is also important, as it serves to penalize polluters. Water law is regulated in most OECD countries. Other types of regulation include tax law, value added tax and business tax.
Administrative law is another type of law that regulates businesses and utilities. These regulations are often designed to protect the environment. Occupational health and safety regulations are also important, as they regulate work practices and procedures. This type of regulation is often made by the government and overseen by an independent regulating body.
Commercial law deals with property law and complex contract law. It is a specialized form of law that emerged alongside the rigid common law. This law is sometimes divided into the following areas: real property, personal property, intellectual property, trusts, company law, and tax law. It is also sometimes divided into industry sectors, such as energy, gas, and telecomms. The field of space law has grown rapidly, as it focuses on liability issues and the commercialization of space. The laws of aviation are designed to ensure safety and technical standards.
There are also two types of religious law: Islamic Sharia and Jewish Halakha. The Quran acts as a source of further law through Ijma (consensus) and Qiyas (reasoning by analogy). This type of law is sometimes called Islamic law.
The United Nations has developed and continues to develop several law programs. This includes regulating migrant labour, combating drug trafficking, and protecting the environment. It has also developed and continues to develop human rights law. Law is also important in combating terrorism.